Production of roses
for export is carried out in green houses
primarily to protect the plants from unfavorable
elements such as excessive sunshine, rains,
humidity, frost and various pests and diseases.
In addition the quality i.e. demanded in
export markets can be achieved under controlled
Roses which are the most important
cut flower crop in the world are grown in
green houses at high density (7 plants/
sq. mt) and are supplied with precise quantities
of water and nutrients. The soil
in the green houses is suitably modified
with amendments such as gypsum, organic
manure, paddy husk etc before the rose plants
are planted inside the green houses. There
are various types of planting materials
available such as dormant eyes, winter grafts,
6 months old bushes and one year bushes.
Depending on the planting material the rose
plants start producing flowers in 3 to 5months.
During this period of 3-5 months the framework
of the plant is built up so as to obtain
continuous production of quality stems for
the next 4-5 years.
There are thousands of varieties of roses
available but only a few are grown commercially
for cut flower production. Depending
on the variety and the method of growing
short stem varieties yield up to 350 stems/sq.mt/year,
medium stemmed up to 150 to 200 stems/sq.mt/year.
Based on the market demand roses can be
produced in flushes or continuously through
out the year.
The required quantities of water
(generally 5-7 liters /sq.mt) are supplied
through a drip system. Also calculated quantities
of fertilizers are dissolved in water and
supplied to the plants through the same
drip system from time to time, Plants are
protected from various pests and diseases
by sprays of fungicides & insecticides.
When the flower stems have completed maturity
they are harvested at a bud stage and immediately
placed in water containing preservative.
The flowers are pre cooled at temperature
of 6 - 8 degrees centigrade for 5 to 6 hours,
which prevent them from any further opening.
Later they are graded based on the stem
length and bunched into bunches of either
tens or twenties depending on the market
requirement. Bunches are stored
at 2 degree centigrade in water until they
are exported to overseas markets. In order
to maintain the cold chain the flowers are
transported by air at a temperature of 5
-10 degree centigrade. These roses
upon reaching various overseas markets or
either sold in the auctions or to whole
sales and retailers which ultimately reaches
the consumer where they are used for various
purposes such as flower bouquets, flower
arrangements, wretches or simply into flower
All this activities are carried
by skilled labour under the guidance of
supervisors and Production Manager.